Ang paninindigan ng mga Chinese sa West Philippine Seas

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May nahanap tayong isang Chinese Article na nai-publish sa website na www.sohu.com noong Marso 15, 2021. Ito ay sinulat ni Fu Ying, na isang dating ambasadora ng China sa Pilipinas noong taon 1998 hanggang 2000.

Maaring isa ito sa mga dahilan kaya nagdagsaan ang mga Chinese Vessels sa West Philippine Sea nitong buwan ng Marso.

Nasa baba ang Google translation ng nasabing Chinese article.

Fu Ying: I have personally experienced the Huangyan Island incident, so I have to say something 

2021-03-15 08:01

【Text / Fu Ying】

From August 10th to 11th, 2016, I was invited to meet with former Philippine President Ramos in a mutual friend’s house in Hong Kong. Ramos was a special envoy appointed by the then newly appointed President Duterte. He invited me to meet in his personal capacity to find ways to ease the tension between China and the Philippines, including discussing his proposed “ice-breaking” trip in Beijing. The feasibility.

Ramos and I know each other well, and I often talked with him when I was an ambassador to the Philippines in 1999. We also had discussions about the situation in the South China Sea. We talked about the old days. When it comes to how China and the Philippines overcome difficulties and continue to promote friendly cooperation in those years, we all regret that the current bilateral cooperation has fallen into a low ebb.

The atmosphere of the meeting was very good, but we quickly discovered a problem, that is, Ramos and his team’s understanding of what happened over the years, especially the Huangyan Island incident, was quite different from what I had known. The story heard by the Filipinos is that “China deceived the Philippines and the United States in 2012, and the Chinese ship did not evacuate Huangyan Island at the same time as the Philippine ship as agreed.” I have also heard similar statements by some former politicians and scholars in the United States. These statements have caused many people to misunderstand the situation and China’s practices.

August 10-11, Philippines former Philippines President Lamo Si (middle) in Hong Kong and Fu Ying ( left three ) , in Guo Nan Hai research study hospital, long Wu Shi (second from left ) into line Friends of good will face Picture from China News Agency

The former U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Campbell described in his book “The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia” (The Pivot: The Future of American Statecraft in Asia): “In 2012, the ten-week stalemate with China finally The Philippines lost the Huangyan Island, which both countries claimed to hold sovereignty. China’s opposition, protests, and informal pressure forced the Philippines to initiate the South China Sea arbitration case.”

I’m worried about this seemingly neutral narrative but actually sidelined the Philippine side. Obviously, the stories circulating in the Philippines and the United States do not conform to the actual situation, and deliberately avoided the historical latitude and longitude of Huangyan Island and the initial state of the event. If this information is used as the basis for decision-making, not only does the Philippines fail to understand China’s active actions and release of goodwill in resolving Sino-Philippines contradictions, but more dangerously, it may cause the situation to slip in the wrong direction. Because the gap in the view of facts will definitely affect each other’s understanding and judgment, and then affect the development of the situation.

So, what is the real story? What is the history of Huangyan Island ? As a witness to the incident, the following are my memories of the course of this incident and related issues.

The cause of the incident was an incident that occurred in the South China Sea in April 2012. On April 11 of that year, Chinese newspapers and online media reported the news that Chinese fishermen were insulted by the Philippine navy in Xì Lake on Huangyan Island in the form of headlines.

On April 10, when 12 Chinese fishing boats were operating normally in the Huangyan Island lagoon, the Philippine “Del Pilar” Hamilton-class patrol ship suddenly appeared to intercept and interfere with Chinese fishermen. News photos showed that Chinese fishermen were stripped of their jackets and exposed to the sun on the deck of the Philippine ship, with the muzzle of the Philippine Navy on their heads. These photos instantly produced explosive effects in Chinese society, triggering national condemnation.

On April 11, 2012, the Philippine Ministry of Foreign Affairs produced a set of photos showing that the Philippine Navy boarded a Chinese fishing boat “Qionghai 03026” with a gun in the waters of Huangyan Island on the morning of the 10th. Data map

After hearing the news, the “China Sea Monitor 75” and “China Sea Monitor 84” fleets cruising near Huangyan Island rushed to the scene, and the “China Fishery Administration 303” ship guarding the reef at Mischief Reef also went to protect the fishermen. Since then, international media reported that China and the Philippines formed a confrontation on Huangyan Island. This is the “Huangyan Island Incident” in 2012.

The commander of the Philippine Navy, Bama, shows the photos and data maps of the “China Sea Supervisor 75” and “China Sea Supervisor 84” who rushed to protect Chinese fishermen on the afternoon of the 10th

Before narrating the process of handling the incident, we need to briefly understand the history: Why does Huangyan Island belong to China? Why doesn’t China think there is a “controversy” over Huangyan Island?

Chinese territory since ancient times

Huangyan Island is a part of China’s Zhongsha Islands. It is formed by coral reefs accumulated on seamounts in the sea basin for many years. It is located in the waters of 15°07′N and 117°51′E. The English alias is “Scarborough Reef Beach” (Scarborough Reef Beach). Shoal). Huangyan Island has a unique geographical structure. It belongs to an annular reef disk, with a circumference of 55 kilometers, enclosing a lagoon with an area of ​​130 square kilometers and a water depth of 10-20 meters. There is a 400-meter-wide channel at the southeast end of the lagoon, which is connected to the open sea. Because there are many reefs here, the width of the mouth of the lake that can facilitate the entry and exit of ships is only about 200 meters, and the water is not very deep. Small boats enter. In addition, there are many small gaps in the reef that communicate with the open sea, and some small fishing boats can also enter and exit from it. The marine ecology in the lagoon of Huangyan Island is varied, and it is also a very attractive fishing ground. It is also a good place for nearby fishermen to take shelter during the typhoon season.

Scattered coral reef fragments appearing above the waterline of Huangyan Island Atoll, each fragment has a surface area of ​​about 1 to 5 square meters . Figure from WorldPress “Discuss the South China Sea” forum

From a historical perspective or a legal perspective, Huangyan Island belongs to China.

The historical records of the continuous and effective management of Huangyan Island by the Chinese government are reflected in the official documents, local chronicles and official maps of the past dynasties of China. According to “The Biography of Yuan History·Guo Shoujing”, in 1279, the famous astronomer Guo Shoujing of Yuan Dynasty conducted the “Quiz of the Four Seas” according to the emperor’s order. The measurement point of the South China Sea was on Huangyan Island. This shows that at least in the Yuan Dynasty, China had discovered and governed Huangyan Island. Huangyan Island and its surrounding waters have been traditional fishing grounds in China since ancient times. Chinese fishermen, especially those in Tanmen Town, Hainan Province, have been engaged in fishery production activities in this waters for generations. Ancient books such as the “Genglu Book” (a navigational guide for Chinese fishermen in the South China Sea to conduct fishery production and trade activities in the form of text), which have been handed down to this day, fully record the fishing routes of Chinese fishermen for generations on Huangyan Island and its adjacent waters.

The most important record about Huangyan Island in modern times is that in January 1935, the Ministry of Interior, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Admiralty, and Ministry of Education of the Republic of China sent members to form a water-land map review committee, and announced that the South China Sea under the jurisdiction of China The names of the 132 islands, reefs and beaches on the island, of which Huangyan Island is named “Scarborough Reef” (Scarborough Reef) and is included in the territory of the Republic of China as part of the Zhongsha Islands. In October 1947, in the comparison table of the old and new names of the South China Sea Islands approved and published by the Government of the Republic of China, the Scarborough Reef was renamed “Minzhu Jiao” (Minzhu Jiao), and it was listed within the Zhongsha Islands.

Picture self-knowledge

China’s jurisdiction over the South China Sea Zhudao has been internationally recognized. After the defeat of Japan, the Chinese government implemented the acceptance and jurisdiction of the South China Sea Islands in accordance with the “Cairo Declaration” and “Potsdam Proclamation”; Map of the Location of the Islands; In 1948, the Government of the Republic of China officially announced the “Map of the Administrative Areas of the Republic of China”, including the “Map of the Location of the Islands in the South China Sea.” After the founding of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, the new Chinese government completely inherited and continued its jurisdiction over the South China Sea Islands. The People’s Republic of China reaffirmed its territorial sovereignty over the South China Sea Islands in the “Statement on the Territorial Sea” issued in 1958.

In 1983, when the Geographical Names Committee of the People’s Republic of China authorized the publication of “Partial Names of South my country Sea Islands”, “Huangyan Island” (Huangyan Island) was used as the standard name, and “Democratic Reef” was used as the alternate name.

In the process of China’s sovereignty over Huangyan Island and the exercise of its jurisdiction, coastal fishermen in Guangdong, Guangxi, and Hainan frequently operate here. After the founding of New China, relevant institutions also conducted a series of scientific investigations and studies on Huangyan Island.

As an ally of the government of the Republic of China, the United States understands the fact that the South China Sea islands were returned to China after Japan’s surrender. The San Francisco Peace Conference, led by the United States, explicitly requires Japan to give up all rights, rights, and demands on the Nansha Islands and Paracel Islands. In 1952, Japan signed a “China-Japan Agreement” with the Taiwan authorities of China to return the Southwest Sand Islands to China. In August 1956, Wester, the First Secretary of the US Agency in Taiwan, applied to the Taiwan authorities of China orally that US military personnel planned to go to Huangyan Island, Twin Reefs, Jinghong Island, Hongxu Island, Nanwei Island and other Zhongsha and Nansha Islands. Take topographic surveys. The Taiwan authorities of China subsequently agreed to the US application. In December 1960, the U.S. government wrote to the Taiwan authorities of China, “requesting permission” for U.S. military personnel to go to the Twin Reefs, Jinghong Island, and Nanwei Island in the Spratly Islands for field surveys. The Taiwan authorities of China approved the above application.

In the 1970s, the Chinese government strengthened its jurisdiction over the South China Sea Islands and sent scientific expedition teams to Huangyan Island for scientific investigations. In October 1977, researchers from the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, boarded Huangyan Island for an investigation. In June 1978, the research staff of the institute visited the island again for investigation activities. In April 1985, a comprehensive inspection team organized by the South China Sea Branch of the State Oceanic Administration boarded Huangyan Island to conduct a comprehensive inspection. In 1994, our South China Sea scientific expedition team arrived on Huangyan Island for investigation and built a one-meter-high concrete monument on the island. The competent authorities of the Chinese government approved radio enthusiasts to land on the island for radio surveys four times in 1994, 1995, 1997 and 2007.

In 1994, the internationally recognized Huangyan Island amateur radio signal “BS7H” channel telephone was sent to the world for the first time from the second largest rock in Huangyan Island, where B stands for China Radio Station, S stands for the islands in the South China Sea, and 7 stands for China’s seventh district. Hainan administrative area, H is the Huangyan island map from WorldPress “to discuss the South China Sea” Forum

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (which defines the concepts of internal waters, territorial waters, adjacent seas, continental shelf, exclusive economic zone, high seas, etc.) cannot replace other established norms of international law. The “United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea” only allows coastal countries to claim an exclusive economic zone of 200 nautical miles. There is no provision for coastal countries to claim or invade other countries’ inherent territories.

This shows that the fact that Huangyan Island belongs to China is clear and there is no dispute.

Set aside disputes and develop together

After independence in the 20th century, the Philippines began to attempt to invade and occupy parts of China’s Nansha Islands. In the 1950s, the “Kromah Incident” was instigated. In the 1970s, the Philippines gradually occupied 8 islands and reefs in the Nansha Islands, including Zhongye Island and Mahuan Island, and claimed sovereignty over the so-called “Kalayaan Island Group”. However, none of these actions involved Huangyan Island. At that time, the US government’s position was on the side of the Chinese Taiwan authorities and respected the Chinese Taiwan authorities’ sovereignty over the Nansha Islands. However, due to the expediency of the Cold War, the United States did not react too strongly to the occupation of the Philippines and other countries. 

Source: https://www.sohu.com/a/455638802_115479.

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